Introduction to web architecture

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Web architectures are an important asset for various large-scale web applications, such as social networks or e-commerce sites. Being able to handle huge numbers of users concurrently is essential, thus scalability is one of the most important features of these architectures.

The reduction of latency for a request can be maintained by parallelizing the request/ operations using the CPU-bound and I/O-bound operations, but the latency of independent, CPU-bound operations can only be decreased by using more threads on more cores.

The concept of adding more threads are used for heavy I/O parallelism, we roughly approach the same problem as seen previously for web servers.

The thread-based approach basically associates each incoming connection with a separate thread (resp. process). In this way, synchronous blocking I/O is the natural way of dealing with I/O.It is a common approach that is well supported by many programming languages.

It also leads to a straight forward programming model, because all tasks necessary for request handling can be coded sequentially. It provides a simple mental abstraction by isolating requests and hiding concurrency. Real concurrency is achieved by employing multiple threads/processes at the same time.

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